Directory of Map Projections

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Wagner IV

Putniṇš P2´

Hufnagel VI




Meridians: Central meridian is a straight line half as long as the equator. Other meridians are equally spaced portions of ellipses (less than semiellipses) that would intersect beyond the poles and are concave toward the central meridian. The meridians at 103°55´ east and west of the central meridian are circular arcs.
Parallels: Unequally spaced straight parallel lines, widest separation near the equator. Perpendicular to the central meridian.
Poles: Lines half as long as the equator.
Symmetry: About the central meridian or the equator.


True along latitudes 42°59´N/S. Constant along any given latitude; same for the latitude of opposite sign.


Distortion is not as extreme near outer meridians at high latitudes as it is on pointed polar pseudocylindric projections, but there is considerable distortion throughout polar regions. Free of distortion only at latitudes 42°59´N/S at the central meridian.

Similar projections

Putniṇš P2´ projection (1949) is identical.
Werenskiold III projection (1944) is identical, except that true scale is maintained along the equator by enlarging the map.
Putniṇš P2 equal-area projection (1934) uses the same portions of ellipses, but the poles are points.
Equal Earth projection is a little wider and shorter, but the shape is similar and the central portions of the map are nearly identical.
Putniṇš P1 and P1´ projections (1934) have meridians identical in shape and position to those of Putniṇš P2 and P2´, respectively, but parallels are equally spaced, and the projections are not equal-area.
Robinson projection is not equal-area, meridians are not elliptical, and parallels are spaced differently.


Presented by Karlheinz Wagner of Germany in 1932. Independently developed by Reinholds V. Putniṇš of Latvia in 1934.

Description adapted from J.P. Snyder and P.M. Voxland, An Album of Map Projections, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1453. United States Government Printing Office: 1989.